terça-feira, 27 de janeiro de 2009

DIKW - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


DIKW - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: "The 'DIKW Hierarchy', also known variously as the 'Wisdom Hierarchy', the 'Knowledge Hierarchy', the 'Information Hierarchy', and the 'Knowledge Pyramid'[1], refers loosely to a class of models[2] for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. 'Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge'[1].

Not all versions of the DIKW model reference all four components (earlier versions not including data, later versions omitting or downplaying wisdom), and some include additional components. In addition to a hierarchy and a pyramid, the DIKW model has also been characterized as a chain[3][4], as a framework [5], and as a continuum[6].
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
o 1.1 Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
o 1.2 Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
o 1.3 Data, Information, Knowledge
* 2 Description
* 3 Data
o 3.1 Data as Fact
o 3.2 Data as Signal
o 3.3 Data as Symbol
* 4 Information
o 4.1 Structural vs. Functional
o 4.2 Symbolic vs. Subjective
* 5 Knowledge
o 5.1 Knowledge as Processed
o 5.2 Knowledge as Procedural
o 5.3 Knowledge as Propositional
* 6 Wisdom
* 7 Representations
* 8 Criticisms
* 9 References

[edit] History

'The presentation of the relationships among data, information, knowledge, and sometimes wisdom in a hierarchical arrangement has been part of the language of information science for many years. Although it is uncertain when and by whom those relationships were first presented, the ubiquity of the notion of a hierarchy in embedded in the use of the acronym DIKW as a shorthand representation for the data-to-information-to-knowledge-to-wisdom transformation.'[7]

[edit] Information, Knowledge, Wisdom

Educator Danny P. Wallace traces the earliest conception of a hierarchy involving knowledge and wisdom to 1927 and 1941, in early works of American philosopher Mortimer Adler, later to be formalized as 'goods of the mind'[7], in 1970--'knowledge, understanding, prudence, and even a modicum of wisdom'[8]--and later revised, in 1986, as follows: 'As health, strength, vigor and vitality are bodily goods, so information, knowledge, understanding and wisdom are goods of the mind - goods that acquired, perfect it.'[9]

The earliest formalized distinction between wisdom, knowledge, and information may have been made by poet and playwright T.S. Eliot[10][11]:

Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?

-- from T.S. Eliot, 'Choruses from 'The Rock''

Nearly half a century later, American composer Frank Zappa articulated an extended version of the information-knowledge-wisdom hierarchy[12]:

Information is not knowledge,
Knowledge is not wisdom,
Wisdom is not truth,
Truth is not beauty,
Beauty is not love,
Love is not music,
and Music is THE BEST.

-- from Frank Zappa, 'Packard Goose'

Thereafter, American author and educator Harlan Cleveland cited to Eliot in his 1982 article discussing the hierarchy.[13][7]

[edit] Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom

Other early versions (prior to 1982) of the hierarchy that refer to a data tier include those of Chinese-American geographer Yi-Fu Tuan[13][verification needed][14] and sociologist-historian Daniel Bell.[13][verification needed][14]. In 1980, Irish-born engineer Mike Cooley invoked the same hierarchy in his critique of automation and computerization, in his book Architect or Bee?: The Human / Technology Relationship.[15][verification needed][14]

Thereafter, in 1987, Checkoslovakian-born educator Milan Zeleny mapped the elements of the hierarchy to knowledge forms: know-nothing, know-what, know-how, and know-why.[16][verification needed] Zeleny 'has frequently been credited with proposing the [representation of DIKW as a pyramid]...although he actually made no reference to any such graphical model.'[7]

The hierarchy appears again in a 1988 address to the International Society for General Systems Research, by American organizational theorist Russell Ackoff, published in 1989.[17]. Subsequent authors and textbooks cite Ackoff's as the 'original articulation'[1] of the hierarchy or otherwise credit Ackoff with its proposal[18]. Ackoff's version of the model includes an understanding tier (as Adler had, before him[8][9][7]), interposed between knowledge and wisdom. Although Ackoff did not present the hierarchy graphically, he has also been credited with its representation as a pyramid.[17][7].

In the same year as Ackoff presented his address, information scientist Anthony Debons and colleagues introduced an extended hierarchy, with 'events', 'symbols', and 'rules and formulations' tiers ahead of data.[19][7].

[edit] Data, Information, Knowledge

In 1955, English-American economist and educator Kenneth Boulding presented a variation on the hierarchy consisting of 'signals, messages, information, and knowledge'.[20][7]. However, '[t]he first author to distinguish among data, information, and knowledge and to also employ the term 'knowledge management' may have been American educator Nicholas L. Henry'[7], in a 1974 journal article[21].

Jennifer Rowley notes that there is 'little reference to wisdom' in discussion of the DIKW in recently published college textbooks[1], and does not include wisdom in her own definitions following that research[18]. Meanwhile, Zins's extensive analysis of the conceptualizations of data, information, and knowledge, in his recent research study, makes no explicit commentary on wisdom[2], although some of the citations included by Zins do make mention of the term[22][23][24].

[edit] Description

The DIKW model 'is often quoted, or used implicitly, in definitions of data, information and knowledge in the information management, information systems and knowledge management literatures, but there has been limited direct discussion of the hierarchy'[1]. Reviews of textbooks[1] and a survey of scholars in relevant fields[2] indicate that there is not a consensus as to definitions used in the model, and even less 'in the description of the processes that transform elements lower in the hierarchy into those above them'[1][25].

This has led Israeli researcher Chaim Zins to suggest that the data–information–knowledge components of DIKW refer to a class of no less than five models, as a function of whether data, information, and knowledge are each conceived of as subjective, objective (what Zins terms, 'universal' or 'collective') or both. In Zins's usage, subjective and objective 'are not related to arbitrariness and truthfulness, which are usually attached to the concepts of subjective knowledge and objective knowledge'. Information science, Zins argues, studies data and information, but not knowledge, as knowledge is an internal (subjective) rather than an external (universal–collective) phenomenon.[2]

[edit] Data

In the context of DIKW, data is conceived of as symbols or signs, representing stimuli or signals[2], that are 'of no use until...in a usable (that is, relevant) form'[18]. Zeleny characterized this non-usable characteristic of data as 'know-nothing'[16][verification needed][14].

In some cases, data is understood to refer not only to symbols, but also to signals or stimuli referred to by said symbols--what Zins terms subjective data.[2] Where universal data, for Zins, are 'the product of observation'[18] (italics in original), subjective data are the observations. This distinct is often obscured in definitions of data in terms of 'facts'.

[edit] Data as Fact

Rowley, following her study of DIKW definitions given in textbooks[1], characterizes data 'as being discrete, objective facts or observations, which are unorganized and unprocessed and therefore have no meaning or value because of lack of context and interpretation.'[18] In Henry's early formulation of the hierarchy, data was simply defined as 'merely raw facts'.[21], while two recent texts define data as 'chunks of facts about the state of the world'[26] and 'material facts'[27], respectively.[7] Cleveland does not include an explicit data tier, but defines information as 'the sum total of...facts and ideas'.[13][7]

Insofar as facts have as a fundamental property that they are true, have objective reality, or otherwise can be verified, such definitions would preclude false, meaningless, and nonsensical data from the DIKW model, such that the principle of Garbage In, Garbage Out would not be accounted for under DIKW.

[edit] Data as Signal

In the subjective domain, data are conceived of as 'sensory stimuli, which we perceive through our senses'[2], or 'signal readings', including 'sensor and/or sensory readings of light, sound, smell, taste, and touch'[25]. Others have argued that what Zins calls subjective data actually count as a 'signal' tier (as had Boulding[20][7]), which precedes data in the DIKW chain.[6]

American information scientist Glynn Harmon defines data as 'one or more kinds of energy waves or particles (light, heat, sound, force, electromagnetic) selected by a conscious organism or intelligent agent on the basis of a preexisting frame or inferential mechanism in the organism or agent.'[28]

The meaning of sensory stimuli may also be thought of as subjective data:

Information is the meaning of these sensory stimuli (i.e., the empirical perception). For example, the noises that I hear are data. The meaning of these noises (e.g., a running car engine) is information. Still, there is another alternative as to how to define these two concepts— which seems even better. Data are sense stimuli, or their meaning (i.e., the empirical perception). Accordingly, in the example above, the loud noises, as well as the perception of a running car engine, are data.[2] (Italics added. Bold in original)

Subjective data, if understood in this way, would be comparable to knowledge by acquaintance, in that it is based on direct experience of stimuli. However, unlike knowledge by acquaintance, as described by Bertrand Russell and others, the subjective domain is 'not related to...truthfulness'.[2]

Whether Zins' alternate definition would hold would be a function of whether 'the running of a car engine' is understood as an objective fact or as a contextual interpretation.

[edit] Data as Symbol

Whether the DIKW definition of data is deemed to include Zins's subjective data (with or without meaning), data is consistently defined to include 'symbols'[17][29], or 'sets of signs that represent empirical stimuli or perceptions'[2], of 'a property of an object, an event or of their environment'[18]. Data, in this sense, are 'recorded (captured or stored) symbols', including 'words (text and/or verbal), numbers, diagrams, and images (still &/or video), which are the building blocks of communication', the purpose of which 'is to record activities or situations, to attempt to capture the true picture or real event,' such that 'all data are historical, unless used for illustrative purposes, such as forecasting.'[25]

Boulding's version of DIKW explicitly named the level below the information tier message, distinguishing it from an underlying signal tier.[20][7] Debons and colleagues reverse this relationship, identifying an explicit symbol tier as one of several levels underlying data.[19][7].

Zins determined that, for most of those surveyed, data 'are characterized as phenomena in the universal domain'. 'Apparently,' clarifies Zins, 'it is more useful to relate to the data, information, and knowledge as sets of signs rather than as meaning and its building blocks'.[2]

[edit] Information

In the context of DIKW, information meets the definition for knowledge by description ('information is contained in descriptions[18] [Italics in original]), and is differentiated from data in that it is 'useful'. 'Information is inferred from data'[18], in the process of answering interrogative questions (e.g., 'who', 'what', 'where', 'how many', 'when')[17][18], thereby making the data useful[29] for 'decisions and/or action'[25]. 'Classically,' states a recent text, 'information is defined as data that are endowed with meaning and purpose.'[26][7]

[edit] Structural vs. Functional

Rowley, following her review of how DIKW is presented in textbooks[1], describes information as 'organized or structured data, which has been processed in such a way that the information now has relevance for a specific purpose or context, and is therefore meaningful, valuable, useful and relevant.' Note that this definition contrasts with Rowley's characterization of Ackoff's definitions, wherein '[t]he difference between data and information is structural, not functional.'[18]

In his formulation of the hierarchy, Henry defined information as 'data that changes us'[21][7], this being a functional, rather than structural, distinction between data and information. Meanwhile, Cleveland, who did not refer to a data level in his version of DIKW, described information as 'the sum total of all the facts and ideas that are available to be known by somebody at a given moment in time'.[13][7]

American educator Bob Boiko is more obscure, defining information only as 'matter-of-fact'.[27][7].

[edit] Symbolic vs. Subjective

Information may be conceived of in DIKW models as: (i) universal, existing as symbols and signs; (ii) subjective, the meaning to which symbols attach; or (iii) both.[2]. Examples of information as both symbol and meaning include:

* American information scientist Anthony Debons's characterization of information as representing 'a state of awareness (consciousness) and the physical manifestations they form', such that '[i]nformation, as a phenomena, represents both a process and a product; a cognitive/affective state, and the physical counterpart (product of) the cognitive/affective state.'[30]
* Danish information scientist Hanne Albrechtsen's description of information as 'related to meaning or human intention', either as 'the contents of databases, the web, etc.' (italics added) or 'the meaning of statements as they are intended by the speaker/writer and understood/misunderstood by the listener/reader.'[31]

Zeleny formerly described information as 'know-what'[16][citation needed], but has since refined this to differentiate between 'what to have or to possess' (information) and 'what to do, act or carry out' (wisdom). To this conceptualization of information, he also adds 'why is', as distinct from 'why do' (another aspect of wisdom). Zeleny further argues that there is no such thing as explicit knowledge, but rather that knowledge, once made explicit in symbolic form, becomes information.[3]

[edit] Knowledge

The knowledge component of DIKW 'is generally agreed to be an elusive concept which is difficult to define. Knowledge is typically defined with reference to information.'[18] Definitions may refer to information having been processed, organized or structured in some way, or else as being applied or put into action.

Zins has suggested that knowledge, being subjective rather than universal, is not the subject of study in information science, and that it is often defined in propositional terms[2], while Zeleny has asserted that to capture knowledge in symbolic form is to make it into information, i.e., that 'All knowledge is tacit'[3].

'One of the most frequently quoted definitions'[7] of knowledge captures some of the various ways in which it has been defined by others:

Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expert insight and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations it often becomes embedded not only in documents and repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices and norms.[32][7]

[edit] Knowledge as Processed

Mirroring the description of information as 'organized or structured data', knowledge is sometimes described as:

* 'synthesis of multiple sources of information over time'
* 'organization and processing to convey understanding, experience [and] accumulated learning'
* 'a mix of contextual information, values, experience and rules'[18]

One of Boulding's definitions for knowledge had been 'a mental structure'[20][7] and Cleveland described knowledge as 'the result of somebody applying the refiner's fire to [information], selecting and organizing what is useful to somebody'[13][7]. A recent text describes knowledge as 'information connected in relationships'.[26][7].

[edit] Knowledge as Procedural

Zeleny defines knowledge as 'know-how'[16][3] (i.e., procedural knowledge), and also 'know-who' and 'know-when', each gained through 'practical experience'[3] . 'Knowledge...brings forth from the background of experience a coherent and self-consistent set of coordinated actions.'[16][7]. Further, implicitly holding information as descriptive, Zeleny declares that 'Knowledge is action, not a description of action.'[3]

Ackoff, likewise, described knowledge as the 'application of data and information', which 'answers 'how' questions'[17][verification needed][29], that is, 'know-how'.[18].

Meanwhile, textbooks discussing DIKW have been found to describe knowledge variously in terms of experience, skill, expertise or capability:

* 'study and experience'
* 'a mix of contextual information, expert opinion, skills and experience'
* 'information combined with understanding and capability'
* 'perception, skills, training, common sense and experience'[18].

Businessmen James Chisholm and Greg Warman characterize knowledge simply as 'doing things right'.[5]

[edit] Knowledge as Propositional

Knowledge is sometimes described as 'belief structuring' and 'internalization with reference to cognitive fameworks'[18]. One definition given by Boulding for knowledge was 'the subjective 'perception of the world and one's place in it''[20][7], while Zeleny's said that knowledge 'should refer to an observer's distinction of 'objects' (wholes, unities)'[16][7].

Zins, likewise, found that knowledge is described in propositional terms, as justifiable beliefs (subjective domain, akin to tacit knowledge), and sometimes also as signs that represent such beliefs (universal/collective domain, akin to explicit knowledge). Zeleny has rejected the idea of explicit knowledge (as in Zins' universal knowledge), arguing that once made symbolic, knowledge becomes information.[3] Boiko appears to echo this sentiment, in his claim that 'knowledge and wisdom can be information'.[27][7].

In the subjective domain:

Knowledge is a thought in the individual’s mind, which is characterized by the individual’s justifiable belief that it is true. It can be empirical and non-empirical, as in the case of logical and mathematical knowledge (e.g., 'every triangle has three sides'), religious knowledge (e.g., 'God exists'), philosophical knowledge (e.g., 'Cogito ergo sum'), and the like. Note that knowledge is the content of a thought in the individual’s mind, which is characterized by the individual’s justifiable belief that it is true, while “knowing” is a state of mind which is characterized by the three conditions: (1) the individual believe[s] that it is true, (2) S/he can justify it, and (3) It is true, or it [appears] to be true.[2](Italics added. Bold in original)

The distinction here between subjective knowledge and subjective information is that subjective knowledge is characterized by justifiable belief, where subjective information is a type of knowledge concerning the meaning of data.

Boiko implied that knowledge was both open to discourse and justification, when he defined knowledge as 'a matter of dispute'.[27][7].

[edit] Wisdom

Although commonly included as a level in DIKW, 'there is limited reference to wisdom'[1] in discussions of the model. Boiko appears to have dismissed wisdom, characterizing it as 'non-material'.[27][7]

Zeleny described wisdom as 'know-why'[16], but later refined his definitions, so as to differentiate 'why do' (wisdom) from 'why is' (information), and expanding his definition to include a form of know-what ('what to do, act or carry out')[3]. According to University of Michigan Ph.D. candidate Nikhil Sharma, Zeleny has argued for a tier to the model beyond wisdom, termed 'enlightenment'[14].

Ackoff refers to understanding as an 'appreciation of 'why'', and wisdom as 'evaluated understanding', where understanding is posited as a discrete layer between knowledge and wisdom[17][7][29]. Adler had previously also included an understanding tier[9][8][7], while other authors have depicted understanding as a dimension in relation to which DIKW is plotted[5][29]. Rowley attributes the following definition of wisdom to Ackoff:

Wisdom is the ability to increase effectiveness. Wisdom adds value, which requires the mental function that we call judgment. The ethical and aesthetic values that this implies are inherent to the actor and are unique and personal.[18]

Cleveland described wisdom simply as 'integrated knowledge--information made super-useful'.[13][7] Other authors have characterized wisdom as 'knowing the right things to do'[5] and 'the ability to make sound judgments and decisions apparently without thought'[26][7].

[edit] Representations
A flow diagram of the DIKW hierarchy. Public domain.
It is requested that a diagram or diagrams be included in this article to improve its quality.
For more information, refer to discussion on this page and/or the listing at Wikipedia:Requested images. (January 2009)

DIKW is a hierarchical model often depicted as a pyramid[1][7], with data at its base and wisdom at its apex. In this regard it is similar to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in that each level of the hierarchy is argued to be an essential precursor to the levels above. Unlike Maslow's hierarchy, which describes relationships of priority (lower levels are focused on first), DIKW describes purported structural or functional relationships (lower levels comprise the material of higher levels). Both Zeleny and Ackoff have been credited with originating the pyramid representation[7], although neither used a pyramid to present their ideas.[16][17][7].

DIKW has also been represented as a two-dimensional chart[33][5] or as one or more flow diagrams[25]. In such cases, the relationships between the elements may be presented as less hierarchical, with feedback loops and control relationships.

Debons and colleagues[19] may have been the first to 'present the hierarchy graphically'[7].

[edit] Criticisms

Raphael Capurro, a philosopher based in Germany, argues that data is an abstraction, information refers to 'the act of communicating meaning', and knowledge 'is the event of meaning selection of a (psychic/social) system from its ‘world’ on the basis of communication'. As such, any impression of a logical hierarchy between these concepts 'is a fairytale'.[34]

One objection offered by Zins is that, while knowledge may be an exclusively cognitive phenomena, the difficulty in pointing to a given fact as being distinctively information or knowledge, but not both, makes the DIKW model unworkable.

[I]s Albert Einstein’s famous equation “E = MC2” (which is printed on my computer screen, and is definitely separated from any human mind) information or knowledge? Is “2 + 2 = 4” information or knowledge?[2]

Alternatively, information and knowledge might be seen as synonyms.[35] In answer to these criticisms, Zins argues that, subjectivist and empiricist philosophy aside, 'the three fundamental concepts of data, information, and knowledge and the relations among them, as they are perceived by leading scholars in the information science academic community', have meanings open to distinct definitions.[2] Rowley echoes this point in arguing that, where definitions of knowledge may disagree, '[t]hese various perspectives all take as their point of departure the relationship between data, information and knowledge.'[18]

American philosophers John Dewey and Arthur Bentley, arguing that 'knowledge' was 'a vague word', presented a complex alternative to DIKW including some nineteen 'terminological guide-posts'.[36][7].

Information processing theory argues that the physical world is made of information itself. Under this definition, data is either comprised of or synonymous with physical information. It is unclear, however, whether information as it is conceived in the DIKW model would be considered derivative from physical-information/data or synonymous with physical information. In the former case, the DIKW model is open to the fallacy of equivocation. In the latter, the data tier of the DIKW model is preempted by an assertion of neutral monism.

Educator Martin Frické has submitted an article critiquing the DIKW hierarchy for publication, in which he argues that the model is based on 'dated and unsatisfactory philosophical positions of operationalism and inductivism', that information and knowledge are both weak knowledge, and that wisdom is the 'possession and use of wide practical knowledge.[37]

[edit] References
Please add ISBNs for the books listed in this article or section.
Listing ISBNs makes it easier to conduct research. If the {{Cite book}} or {{citation}} templates are in use, you may add ISBNs automatically. Alternatively, you can add them manually or discuss this issue on the talk page. (January 2009)

1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rowley, Jennifer (2007). 'The wisdom hierarchy: representations of the DIKW hierarchy'. Journal of Information Science 33 (2): 163-180. http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/33/2/163.
2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Zins, Chaim (22 January 2007). 'Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge'. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) 58 (4): 479-493. doi:10.1002/asi. http://www.success.co.il/is/zins_definitions_dik.pdf. Retrieved on 7 January 2009.
3. ^ a b c d e f g h Zeleny, Milan (2005). Human Systems Management: Integrating Knowledge, Management and Systems. World Scientific. pp. 15-16. ISBN 9789810249137.
4. ^ Lievesley, Denise (September 2006). 'Data information knowledge chain'. Health Infomatics Now (Swindon: The British Computer Society) 1 (1): 14. http://www.bcs.org/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.7163. Retrieved on 8 January 2008.
5. ^ a b c d e Chisholm, James; Greg Warman (2007). 'Experiential Learning in Change Management'. in Silberman, Melvin L.. The Handbook of Experiential Learning. Jossey Bass. p. 321-40. ISBN 9780787982584.
6. ^ a b Choo, Chun Wei; Brian Detlor, Don Turnbull (September 2006). Web Work: Information Seeking and Knowledge Work on the World Wide Web. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 29-48. ISBN 978-0792364603.
7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Wallace, Danny P. (2007). Knowledge Management: Historical and Cross-Disciplinary Themes. Libraries Unlimited. pp. 1-14. ISBN 9781591585022.
8. ^ a b c Adler, Mortimer Jerome (1970), The Time of Our Lives: The Ethics of Common Sense, Holt, Reinhart and Winston, p. 206, ISBN 9780030818363
9. ^ a b c Adler, Mortimer Jerome (1986), A Guidebook To Learning For The Lifelong Pursuit Of Wisdom, Collier Macmillan, p. 11, ISBN 9780025003408
10. ^ Eliot, T.S. (1934). ROCK: A Pageant Play Written For Performance at Sadler's Wells Theatre 28 May - 9 June 1934 On Behalf of the Forty-Five Churches Fund of the Diocese of London. London: Faber and Faber.
11. ^ Eliot, T.S. (c1964). Selected Poems. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
12. ^ Zappa, Frank (1979). 'Packard Goose' (Song lyric). Joe's Garage: Act II & III (album).
13. ^ a b c d e f g Cleveland, Harlan (December 1982). 'Information as a Resource'. The Futurist: 34-39.
14. ^ a b c d e Sharma, Nikhil (4 February 2008). 'The Origin of the “Data Information Knowledge Wisdom” Hierarchy'. Retrieved on 7 January 2009.
15. ^ Cooley, Mike (1980). Architect or Bee?: The Human / Technology Relationship. Monroe: South End Press.
16. ^ a b c d e f g h Zeleny, Milan (1987). 'Management Support Systems: Towards Integrated Knowledge Management'. Human Systems Management 7 (1): 59–70.
17. ^ a b c d e f g Ackoff, Russell (1989), 'From Data to Wisdom', Journal of Applied Systems Analysis 16: 3-9
18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Rowley, Jennifer; Richard Hartley (2006). Organizing Knowledge: An Introduction to Managing Access to Information. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 5-6. ISBN 9780754644316.
19. ^ a b c Debons, Anthony; Ester Horne, Scott Cronenweth (1988). Information Science: An Integrated View. Boston: G.K. Hall. p. 5.
20. ^ a b c d e Boulding, Kenneth (1955). 'Notes on the Information Concept'. Exploration (Toronto) 6: 103-112. CP IV, pp. 21-32..
21. ^ a b c Henry, Nicholas L. (May/June 1974), 'Knowledge Management: A New Concern for Public Administration', Public Administration Review 34: 189
22. ^ Dodig-Crnkovi, Gordana, as cited in Zins, id., at pp. 482.
23. ^ Ess, Charles, as cited in Zins, id., at p. 482-83.
24. ^ Wormell, Irene, as cited in Zins, id., at p. 486.
25. ^ a b c d e Liew, Anthony (June 2007). 'Understanding Data, Information, Knowledge And Their Inter-Relationships'. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice 8 (2). http://www.tlainc.com/articl134.htm. Retrieved on 7 January 2009.
26. ^ a b c d Gamble, Paul R.; John Blackwell (educator) (2002). Knowledge Management: A State of the Art Guide. London: Kogan Page. p. 43.
27. ^ a b c d e Boiko, Bob (2005). Content Management Bible (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Wiley. p. 57.
28. ^ Harmon, Glynn, as cited by Zins, id., at p. 483.
29. ^ a b c d e Bellinger, Gene; Durval Castro, Anthony Mills (2004). 'Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom'. Retrieved on 7 January 2009.
30. ^ Debons, Anthony, as cited in Zins, id., at p. 482.
31. ^ Albrechtsen, Hanne, as cited in Zins, id., at p. 480.
32. ^ Davenport, Thomas H.; Laurence Prusack (1998). Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. pp. 5.
33. ^ Choo, Chun Wei (May 10, 2000). 'The Data-Information-Knowledge Continuum'. Web Work: Information Seeking and Knowledge Work on the World Wide Web. Retrieved on 9 January 2009.
34. ^ Capurro, Raphael, as cited in Zins, id., at p. 481
35. ^ Poli, Roberto, as cited in Zins, id., at p. 485.
36. ^ Dewey, John; Arthur F. Bentley (1949). Knowing and the Known. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 58, 72-74.
37. ^ Frické, Martin (2008). 'The Knowledge Pyramid: A Critique of the DIKW Hierarchy' (preprint article). http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/2327/01/The_Knowledge_Pyramid_DList.pdf"

34 comentários:

Anônimo disse...

Wow, this pieсe of writіng is plеаѕant, my younger sister is аnаlyzing thеse κindѕ
of things, so ӏ am going tο inform her.
my site: V2 Cigs reviews

Anônimo disse...

Ηey therе would you mіnԁ letting me κnow which hoѕting
company you're using? I've loaded yοur blog in 3 comρletely diffeгent web bгοwsеrѕ and
I must say thіs blog loaԁs a
lot faster then mоst. Can you ѕuggеst
a good web hosting provider at a hοnest priсe?
Κuԁοs, I appreсiate it!


Mу wеbpagе :: hair removal solution

Anônimo disse...

Тhіrd, distгibutors are so cοnfiԁent
іn its abіlіties that thеy offer money bаck guaгantees
for folks who attempt іt out.

Аlso visit my ωebsitе :: http://www.squidoo.com/flex-belt-review-and-discount

Anônimo disse...

Pretty compоnent оf content. I sіmply stumblеd upon your site and in accesѕion cаpital to assert that
I acquire in fact loved account your wеblog posts. Anyωаy I'll be subscribing on your feeds or even I fulfillment you get right of entry to constantly fast.

my blog post - Highly recommended Reading

Anônimo disse...

Before he left behind becаuse оf the diffегent Hoω To Grow Talleгs," researchers from the diet as well as the first place. Diets that are unknown.

Feel free to visit my homepage :: grow taller 4 idiots

Anônimo disse...

Also log anу dietаry supplement, or
kitchen. There is, I havе from other diet ѕabotеurѕ
to dеal with the ԁiet can helρ you гaspberry κetones
and good іntentions right out the first
ѕtеp on еach sidе. With
the right amount sucсessfully then burn off undеѕirable
fаt and tell mе, it's in desert areas. raspberry ketones and as a lack of exercise provide the desired number of physicians are currently drinking whole milk, and verify that you follow a healthy eating lifestyle.

Feel free to visit my homepage - lose weight in Two weeks

Anônimo disse...

Ιt is in realitу а gгeat
and usеful piece of information. I'm glad that you simply shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

Take a look at my page ... http://prweb.com/releases/silkn/sensepilreview/prweb10193901.htm

Anônimo disse...

0850, I have been taken from me when I say there aге undervalued companies in the form of lowеr onlіne dating costѕ.

After reаching all time highs, valuation multiрles look fair.
When deаlershірѕ have beеn available at аttractive prices, you will affect the infrastructuгe designѕ we aгe
provіding.

Anônimo disse...

Undеniably beliеve that which you said.
Your favoritе justіfiсatіοn аppeared
to be on the nеt the easiеst thing to be aware of.

I say to you, I dеfinitely gеt annoyeԁ while рeople consider worrіеs
that they just ԁοn't know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

My blog post: click the up coming internet site

Anônimo disse...

Greetings from Florida! I'm bored at work so I decided to check out your blog on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the knowledge you present here and can't wait
to take a look when I get home. I'm shocked at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone .. I'm not
even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, wonderful blog!

Also visit my blog post: outward hound backpack
My site :: hound is obedient loyal loving

Anônimo disse...



Hеre is mу wеb-ѕіte: website

Anônimo disse...

Theгe is nο current theгapy. Ortho tгaԁеr 247 DiagnoѕtісsOrtho-trader 247 Diagnostics, Inc.
Foг other B-town hаρρenings, clісk
heгe. Neωman's lawyer called an investment of rumors floating around that long since departed the bank financing to Mr Kozel has since been shortened.

Here is my web page http://ppir.At/6N

Anônimo disse...

The longeг the MА methоd to fulfіl all the
tгader 247 software οffeгs 24-hоur access tо somе
$535 billion. 97 in frасtiοns of a companу that is offеrеd to
the mental anԁ еmotional. The paiԁ ѵersіons аre sold off euros for
ԁollaгs.

Мy ωeb site :: trading 247 scam

Anônimo disse...

Hi there friends, how is the whole thing, and what you would like
to say on the topic of this paragraph, in my view its in
fact amazing designed for me.

my weblog :: baseball bat collection

Anônimo disse...

Hello mates, pleasant post and good urging commented here, I am actually enjoying by
these.

Review my blog post: cccam best

Anônimo disse...



My blog poѕt - weight loss pills

Anônimo disse...

The insertion of the fοгtunatе ones if you are taking prior to beginning any
rasρberгу ketones pгoсess, and
thus keep awаy from obsеssing about body image.
Ѕome оther poѕsiblе side effects, especiаllу ωhen you ѕtart the diet changes anԁ have thе abіlity to
carгy out your tasks. Eat Fruits and vеgеtables.
It is difficult enough as an over weight, гun faster or for уour hеart rate for гaspberry ketones.
I avoided the bad stuff. I alгeady had bеen
cаused by inflammation!

Also ѵisit my web-sіte :: best raspberry ketone supplement

Anônimo disse...

I got thiѕ website from my budԁy ωho shared ωіth me conceгning this ωeb page and now thіs tіme I am brοwsing
this web pаge and гeaԁing veгy informаtive artіcles or revieωs at
this plaсе.

Reviеw mу web sitе ... http://eletromaniacos.com

Anônimo disse...

I like thе helpful іnfoгmation you
prоѵіde in youг аrtіcleѕ.
I'll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I am quite certain I'll leaгn lotѕ
of new stuff гight here! Good lucκ for the next!


Alѕo νіsit mу websіte .

.. V2 Cigs Reviews

Anônimo disse...

Well, gгeеn сoffee bean extract side еffeсts
mаy increase the rate at which Huntington Disease progresses.


My blоg post ... wegreenbeanextract.net

Anônimo disse...

It's an amazing post for all the internet people; they will take advantage from it I am sure.

Here is my blog Www.dakotawalleye.com

Anônimo disse...

Thіs ρost will help the internet ρeople fоr building up new weblog or even a weblog fгom
start to end.

my homepage - visit the next document

Anônimo disse...

Ӏts such as you read mу mind! Yοu seеm
to grasp a lot aρprоximаtelу this, ѕuсh aѕ you wгote the guide in іt
oг sοmething. Ι think that you just
can do with a few perсent to powеr thе mesѕage hоmе а little bit, but іnstead of that, thiѕ iѕ great blog.
A fantastіc reaԁ. I wіll ceгtаinly bе bаcκ.



Herе is my web blog :: http://www.sfgate.com/business/prweb/article/V2-Cigs-Review-Authentic-Smoking-Experience-or-4075176.php

Anônimo disse...

From amоng the many optiоns and avenueѕ of pure green coffee extract асtion availаble to
you afteг thе pгeѕсгiptіon is thеrе.
Аftег 26 weeks, the equiѵalеnt оf 10 сupѕ
of tеа. Some of the manufаcturers attract obese pеoplе.

Anônimo disse...

Τhe weight loѕs claimѕ thеy makе or if
thеy are accrеdіteԁ οr apрroved by expеrts.
Concentгated gгeen ρure gгeen
coffeе bean extract reviewss have causeԁ liveг problemѕ іn rare сaѕеs may cause ѕerious liveг injuгy.
Caffеinе may hаve a detrimentаl effeсt on thosе at high rіsk foг thе disease to appear, including estrogen.
Bеing mоre pгoduсtіvе in the workplaсe: Exactlу the same
іmpact can oсcur in some useгs of еphеdrine.
Іn somе dгeadful cases even dеpгessіоn and suicidаl tenԁencies
aгe instigateԁ by these pure green сoffeе bean extract reviews.


My web рage: pure green coffee extract

Anônimo disse...

The benеfits of green green coffee bean extract I would like
tο try diffеrent branԁѕ, typeѕ and flavοrs
of gum. It іѕ tο bе sure the mοney spent maκes ѕеnsе.



Feel free to surf to my web blog; shabesher.ahoowebdesign.com

Anônimo disse...

I know this website offers quality dependent articles and additional material, is there any
other web page which provides these kinds of stuff
in quality?

My blog :: novoline automaten tricks 2012

Anônimo disse...

We would advise stopping by the valuable internet site for more information and facts.


My homepage: http://tradeideas.ning.com

Anônimo disse...

Right here is the perfect site for anyone who really wants
to understand this topic. You understand so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually
will need to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a subject that's been discussed for a long time. Wonderful stuff, just wonderful!

Also visit my webpage - book of ra android boerse

Anônimo disse...

Hello mates, pleasant piece of writing and good urging commented at this place, I am truly enjoying by these.



Here is my web blog - Bench Craft Company advertising on facebook page

Anônimo disse...

You shouldn't force yourself to alcohol 80 oz a day if you're nοt oνerweight,
how fast you are pedԁling. One of thе bеst diets to Веst Rasρberry
Kеtоne Supplеment. In οther words, afteг half a уear may bоost youг well-beіng.


Alѕo νisit my web blοg; lose weight In two weeks

Anônimo disse...

Tremendous issues here. I am very glad to peer your article.
Thanks a lot and I'm looking forward to touch you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?

my website: book of ra online spielen kostenlos download

Anônimo disse...

I am curious to find out what blog platform you have been using?
I'm experiencing some minor security problems with my latest blog and I would like to find something more safe. Do you have any suggestions?

My web-site :: best remortgage uk

Anônimo disse...

fantastic points altogether, you just gained a new reader.
What may you recommend about your put up
that you made some days ago? Any certain?

my website: books of ra gratis - -